Our lab members have contributed the following publications to scholarly academic journals:
Gabriel, A. S., Volpone, S. D., MacGowan, R. L., Butts, M., & Moran, C. M. (In Press). When work and family blend: Examining the daily experiences of breastfeeding mothers at work. Academy of Management Journal. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2017.1241
Abstract: Although several work-family theories describe complexities associated with fulfilling work and family roles, extant research does not fully explain blended work-family experiences, such as women working full-time and breastfeeding at work. To address this theoretical shortcoming, we conducted a multi-study investigation. In Study 1, we interviewed 38 women about their daily experiences surrounding breastfeeding at work. We then developed a theoretical model aimed to examine possible challenges and benefits associated with this blended work-family experience and tested it with an experience sampling investigation assessing 106 women over 15 workdays in Study 2. Results suggested that breastfeeding interference increased negative affect and decreased positive affect daily, with negative affect hindering breastfeeding goal progress (i.e., ounces of breastmilk produced at work) and work goal progress. Yet, positive experiences tied to breastfeeding enrichment decreased negative affect and increased positive affect, with positive affect increasing work-family balance satisfaction. Beyond these relationships, we also explored the effects associated with contextual features of breastfeeding at work—breastfeeding stigma, breastfeeding compassion, and quality of the breastfeeding space. Combined, our work enhances our theoretical understanding of blended work-family experiences, highlighting that blending work and family roles daily can yield both positive and negative consequences across domains.
David, E.,* Volpone, S. D.,* & Nandialath, A. (In press, Available online). Fostering longevity attitudes in women expatriates: The role of general and targeted types of organizational support. International Journal of Human Resource Management. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2019.1640766
*Both authors contributed equally.
*Full Article Available with Open Access at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09585192.2019.1640766
Abbreviated Abstract: We draw on strategic human resource management theory to show that organizations interested in gaining or maintaining a strategic competitive advantage should attend to the under-representation of women expatriates. Results showed that perceived organizational support did not significantly increase adjustment and subsequent longevity attitudes for men or women. Then, organizational cultural intelligence aided male employees’ adjustment (as did family-supportive work perceptions to a lesser degree), leading to heightened commitment, career satisfaction, and community embeddedness. Women, in contrast, were aided by family-supportive work perceptions, but not organizational cultural intelligence.
Hernandez, M., Avery, D. R., Volpone, S. D., & Kaiser, C. (2019). Bargaining while Black: The role of race in salary negotiations.Journal of Applied Psychology, 104(4),581-592. doi: 10.1037/apl0000363
Abbreviated Abstract: Across three studies, we theorize and find that Black job seekers are expected to negotiate less than their White counterparts and are penalized in negotiations with lower salary outcomes when this expectation is violated; especially when they negotiate with an evaluator who is more racially biased (i.e., higher in social dominance orientation). Collectively, our findings demonstrate that racially biased perceptual distortions can be used to justify the provision of smaller monetary awards for Black job seekers in negotiations.
Volpone, S. D., Marquardt, D. J., Casper, W. J., & Avery, D. R. (2018). Minimizing cross-cultural maladaptation: How minority status facilitates change in international acculturation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(3), 249-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/apl0000273
Abbreviated Abstract: Culturally savvy organizations recognize that selecting and developing people who can be effective in a global workforce is important in today’s business environment. Nevertheless, many companies struggle to identify and develop talent who are happy and successful working and living outside their home country. We examine one factor that may foster success in a host country—minority status in one’s home country—as a predictor of change in acculturation over time.
Lyons, B. J., Volpone, S. D., Wessel, J. L., & Alonso, N. M. (2017). Disclosing a disability: Do strategy type and onset controllability make a difference. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(9), 1375-1383. doi:10.1037/apl0000230
Abbreviated Abstract: In hiring contexts, individuals with concealable disabilities make decisions about how they should disclose their disability to overcome observers’ biases. Previous research has investigated the effectiveness of binary disclosure decisions—that is, to disclose or conceal a disability— but we know little about how, why, or under what conditions different types of disclosure strategies impact observers’ hiring intentions. In this article, we examine disability onset controllability (i.e., whether the applicant is seen as responsible for their disability onset) as a boundary condition for how disclosure strategy type influences the affective reactions (i.e., pity, admiration) that underlie observers’ hiring intentions.
Avery, D. R., McKay, P., & Volpone, S. D. (2016). Blaming the building: How venue quality influences consumer bias against stigmatized leaders. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(8), 1111-1121. doi:10.1037/apl0000117
Abbreviated Abstract: Because stigmatized individuals are viewed as incongruent with commonly held implicit leadership theories, they are often deemed less fit to lead than their nonstigmatized counterparts (Eagly & Karau, 2002). This suggests consumers might use such views to discredit not only stigmatized leaders, but also the companies they represent. Across 2 complementary studies (field and experiment), we find that consumers penalize companies with stigmatized leaders only when doing so can easily be attributed to an alternative factor (e.g., a lower quality venue) not involving the leader’s stigma.
Volpone, S. D., Tonidandel, S., Avery, D. A., & Castel, S. (2015). Exploring the use of credit scores in selection processes: Beware of adverse impact. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(2), 357-372. doi: 10.1007/s10869-014-9366-5
Abbreviated Abstract: The use of credit checks or credit scores in personnel selection has received widespread media attention of late. Though there is speculation that basing hiring decisions (even partially) on credit-related variables may produce or increase adverse impact, virtually no empirical literature exists to support or refute this claim. The present study explores the impact of using credit scores, in the context of a larger selection system, on adverse impact.
Avery, D. R., McKay, P. F., Volpone, S. D., & Malka, A. (2015). Are companies beholden to bias? The impact of leader race on consumer purchasing behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 127, 85-102. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2015.01.004
Abbreviated Abstract: Given that racial stereotypes often influence leader appraisals, many businesses assume consumers will respond unfavorably to Black leaders. Across archival studies, a classroom exercise, and an experiment, we found that customers (real and prospective) appraised Black leaders less favorably than White leaders, resulting in lower patronage only when motivated to view leaders stereotypically. Namely, significant consumer bias against companies with Black leaders emerged only when organizational failure was accompanied by (a) unfamiliarity with the leader(s) in question, (b) greater societal acceptance of racist behavior (i.e., in the past), or (c) high consumer desire to bask-in-reflected-glory of an organization.
Jiang, K., Hong, Y., McKay, P. F., Avery, D. R., Wilson, D. C., & Volpone, S. D. (2015). Retaining employees through anti–sexual harassment practices: Exploring the mediating role of psychological distress and employee engagement. Human Resource Management, 54(1),1-21. doi:10.1002/hrm.21585
Abbreviated Abstract: The authors hypothesized that perceived anti–sexual harassment practices and sexual harassment incidents would relate to employee engagement, both directly and indirectly through psychological distress. Moreover, psychological distress and employee engagement were hypothesized to mediate the relationships of perceived anti–sexual harassment practices and sexual harassment incidents with affective commitment and intentions to stay. Study findings supported these hypotheses within two subsamples of female (N = 3,283 and 3,207) and male (N = 3,460 and 3,300) military personnel.
Rubino, C., Avery, D. R., Volpone, S. D., & Ford, L. (2014). Does teaming obscure low performance? Exploring the temporal effects of team performance diversity. Human Performance, 27(5),416-434. doi:10.1080/08959285.2014.956175
Abbreviated Abstract: We assessed the length of time the group performed together as a moderator and social loafing among members as a mediator of the performance diversity—team effectiveness relationship. Using multisource data for 673 individuals in 139 project teams, we found that performance diversity had an increasingly negative effect for groups that were together longer. Specifically, greater diversity resulted in more social loafing, thereby diminishing team satisfaction and supervisor-rated team performance
Volpone, S. D., & Avery, D. R. (2013). It’s self-defense: How perceived discrimination promotes employee withdrawal. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(4), 430-448. doi: 10.1037/a0034016
Abbreviated Abstract: Integrating theory on stress, stigma, and coping, the present study sheds light on how employees react to perceived discrimination (PD) in the workplace. Using three national samples, we found that PD based on race, sex, age, family obligation, and sexual orientation related to physical withdrawal (i.e., lateness, absenteeism, and intent to quit) indirectly through psychological withdrawal (i.e., burnout and engagement) such that PD corresponded in less engagement and more burnout, which related to increased lateness, absenteeism, and intent to quit. Further, these indirect relationships were moderated by employees’ coping mechanisms with those who were more apt to change the situation or to avoid the stressor exhibiting weaker relationships between PD and psychological withdrawal.
Avery, D. R., Wang, M., Volpone, S. D., & Zhou, L. (2013). Different strokes for different folks: The impact of sex dissimilarity in the empowerment-performance relationship. Personnel Psychology, 66(3), 757-784. doi: 10.1111/peps.12032
Abbreviated Abstract: Organizations often utilize empowerment as a way to bolster performance. It is largely assumed, however, that its impact in this capacity is equivalent across organizational members. We tested this notion within a sample of 420 employees belonging to 75 teams in a Chinese organization and found that team empowerment related positively to supervisor-rated in-role and self-rated extra-role performance through its effect on individual psychological empowerment. More important, employee–coworker demographic dissimilarity moderated both stages of this indirect relationship. Specifically, when employee–coworker sex dissimilarity was higher, the following relationships were attenuated: (a) team empowerment–individual empowerment, (b) individual empowerment–in-role performance, and (c) individual empowerment– extra–role performance. Collectively, the results illustrate that the impact of empowerment is contingent upon demographic dissimilarity.
Volpone, S. D., Perry, S. J., & Rubino, C. (2013). An exploratory study of factors that relate to burnout in hobby-jobs. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 62(4), 655-677. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2012.00502.x
Abbreviated Abstract: Using the Job Demands-Resources model as a theoretical foundation, we explored the relationships among job demands, internal resources, and burnout in a unique population of workers—individuals with hobby-jobs (i.e. jobs created from a hobby). We examined four job demands (i.e. variety, constraints, time spent on hobby, hobby/job similarity) as antecedents of the three dimensions of burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion, cynicism, professional efficacy) and moderating effects of internal resources (i.e. conscientiousness, emotional stability) on these relationships. We found that all four demands predicted emotional exhaustion. Further, variety and constraints related to cynicism and variety was associated with diminished professional efficacy. Conscientiousness and emotional stability moderated some of these relationships, indicating that these traits may indeed act as internal resources. Our findings suggest that individuals in hobby-jobs are affected by job demands as in other jobs, but may also face unique demands. Personality traits and behaviors consistent with those traits may help individuals pursuing hobby-jobs by protecting them from burnout.
Avery, D. R., Volpone, S. D, Stewart, R., Luksyte, A., Hernandez, M., McKay, P. F., & Hebl, M. R. (2013). Examining the draw of diversity: How diversity climate perceptions affect job pursuit intentions. Human Resource Management, 52(2),175-193. doi: 10.1002/hrm.21524
Abbreviated Abstract: Despite the bottom-line implications of attracting the best and brightest, surprisingly little is known about how and why diversity recruitment strategies affect recruitment outcomes (e.g., job-pursuit intentions). To gain insight into this question, we conducted an initial experimental study (N = 194) to test the premise that other-group orientation moderates the relationship between perceived organizational value of diversity and job-pursuit intentions. In a follow-up experiment (N = 255), identity affirmation was examined as the mediating mechanism for the interaction observed in the first study. Mediated moderation analyses supported the proposed model. Collectively, the studies indicate that job seekers high in other-group orientation are more intent on pursuing employment with organizations deemed to value diversity because they feel that their salient identities are likely to be affirmed. No such indirect effect is present for those lower in other-group orientation.
Rubino, C., Volpone, S. D., & Avery, D. R. (2013). Burnout on Mars and Venus: Exploring gender differences in emotional exhaustion. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 28(2), 74-93. doi: 10.1108/17542411311303220
Abbreviated Abstract: The aim of this paper is to draw on gender role theory and the stressor-strain literature to examine sex differences in emotional exhaustion. The paper also investigates a mediating mechanism (i.e. work-family conflict) and a boundary condition (i.e. ratio between actual and desired work hours, termed overemployment/ underemployment) of the sex – emotional exhaustion relationship. Using a sample of 3,114 respondents, the paper found support for the authors’ model, suggesting that overemployed women are more likely to experience work-family conflict and emotional exhaustion than men. However, when individuals work fewer hours than desired, men are more susceptible to emotional exhaustion than women by first experiencing work-family conflict.
Avery, D. R., McKay, P. F., Tonidandel, S., Volpone, S. D., & Morris, M. A. (2012). Is there method to the madness? Examining how racioethnic matching influences retail store productivity.Personnel Psychology, 65(1),167-199. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01241.x
Abbreviated Abstract: This article considers the efficacy of matching the racioethnicity of employees and the customer base as a human resource strategy within service organizations. Using multisource data pertaining to 739 stores of a U.S. retailer, the results indicate a positive effect of racioethnic representativeness on productivity, which is accounted for by improved customer satisfaction. Moreover, additional analyses showed this indirect relationship to be more pronounced in stores with larger minority customer bases.
Volpone, S. D., Avery, D. R., & McKay, P. F. (2012). Linkages between racioethnicity, appraisal reactions, and employee engagement. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(1),252-270. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00877.x
Abbreviated Abstract: Using survey data collected from a large (N = 5,537), diverse sample of retail employees, we found that more favorable appraisal reactions corresponded with more favorable psychological diversity climate perceptions; thus, higher levels of engagement. This indirect relationship was significantly stronger for ethnic minority employees (Blacks and Hispanics) than for White employees, indicating that members of traditionally disadvantaged groups respond differently to perceptions of appraisal systems. Finally, an exploratory assessment found that the hypothesized effects for racioethnicity do not generalize to sex, as the indirect effect of appraisal reactions on engagement was slightly, but not significantly stronger for women than for men.
Avery, D. R., Volpone, S. D., McKay, P. F., King, E., & Wilson, D. C. (2012). Is relational demography relative? How employment status influences effects of supervisor–subordinate demographic similarity. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(1), 83-98. doi: 10.1007/s10869-011-9230-9
Abbreviated Abstract: Using two nationally representative U.S. surveys containing more than 2,000 combined respondents, we examined variability in employee withdrawal (i.e., tardiness, absenteeism, and intent to remain). The results indicated that having a supervisor belonging to one’s racioethnic group has a greater impact on withdrawal among part-time than full-time employees. Racioethnic similarity corresponded in less tardiness and absence, and higher intent to remain for part-timers. Similarly, sex similarity corresponded in lower levels of absence for part-timers.
Stewart, R. W., Volpone, S. D., & Avery, D. R. (2011). You support diversity, but are you ethical? Examining the interactive effects of diversity and ethical climate perceptions on turnover intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(4), 581-593. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0697-5
Abbreviated Abstract: The authors utilized the stakeholder perspective to corporate social responsibility to examine the effects of a perceived climate for ethics on the relationship between diversity climate and voluntary turnover intentions. Specifically, they examined how ethics climate (employees’ perceptions that their organization values and enforces ethically correct behavior) affected the diversity climate–turnover intentions relationship. Results indicated that ethics climate moderated the diversity climate– turnover intentions relationship. Turnover intentions were lowest among workers perceiving both a pro-diversity and highly ethical climate.
Avery, D. R., McKay, P. F., Wilson, D. C., Volpone, S. D., & Killham, E. A. (2011). Does voice go flat? How tenure diminishes the impact of voice. Human Resource Management, 50(1), 147-158. doi: 10.1002/hrm.20403
Abbreviated Abstract: Building upon Greenberg and Strasser’s (1986) model of personal control in organizations, we hypothesize that the positive effect of voice on intent to remain will be less pronounced for employees with longer organizational tenures. Converging results of national surveys from the United Kingdom and the United States support the anticipated relationships. It appears the beneficial effects of voice on employee attitudes may decrease as employees accrue tenure with their employer.
Avery, D. R., Lerman, B., & Volpone, S. D. (2010). Investigating the racioethnic differences in the link between workplace racioethnic dissimilarity and life satisfaction. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(3), 307-312. doi: 10.1037/a0018669
Abbreviated Abstract: This study used data from a nationally representative interview survey of more than 500 people employed in the United States to test relationships between workplace dissimilarity, prejudice, racioethnicity, and life satisfaction. We found that the dissimilarity–satisfaction linkage is positive for Black and Hispanic Americans and negative for White Americans. Further exploring the latter finding, our results showed that the negative association between dissimilarity and life satisfaction was present only among White Americans higher in prejudice.
Volpone, S. D., & Avery, D. R. (2010). I’m confused: How failing to value sexual identities at work sends stakeholders mixed messages. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(1), 90-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-9434.2009.01205.x
Abbreviated Abstract: Ultimately, we believe that a failure to support LGBT employees through policies and other organization-wide initiatives sends a negative message to stakeholders concerning an organization’s current diversity initiatives. Because stakeholders’ perceptions affect organizational outcomes such as corporate image and customer purchasing decisions (Brickson, 2007), their perspectives should be considered in an organization’s key operating decisions (e.g., initiating new policies). Thus, we extend King and Cortina’s arguments to consider an unexplored economic and social impact of firms failing to employ LGBT-supportive policies: sending mixed messages to multiple stakeholders.
Avery, D. R., Tonidandel, S., Volpone, S.D., & Raghuram, A. (2010). Overworked in America: How work hours, immigrant status, and interpersonal justice affect perceived work overload. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(2), 133-147. doi: 10.1108/02683941011019348
Abbreviated Abstract: This paper aims to examine work hours, interpersonal justice, and immigrant status as predictors of work overload. The hypotheses were tested using a large, national random telephone survey of employees in the United States (n=2,757). As expected, employees who worked more hours tended to perceive more work overload. Importantly, however, this effect interacted with interpersonal justice differently for immigrant and native-born employees. Justice attenuated the effect of work hours for the former but seemed to exacerbate it somewhat for the latter. Of note, the interactive effect was more than five times larger for immigrants than for natives.
Rubino, C., Luksyte, A., Perry, S. J., & Volpone, S. D. (2009). How do stressors lead to burnout? The mediating role of motivation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(3), 289-304. doi: 10.1037/a0015284
Abbreviated Abstract: We extend existing stressor-strain theoretical models by including intrinsic motivation as a mediator between well-established job stressors and burnout. With a sample of 284 self-employed individuals, we examined motivation as a mediator to explain why situational factors impact 3 dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. As expected, intrinsic motivation was a full mediator for the effect of perceived fit on the inefficacy dimension of burnout. Unexpectedly, neither perceived fit nor motivation was related to the other 2 dimensions of burnout, and role ambiguity had only a direct effect on the inefficacy dimension; it was also unrelated to exhaustion and cynicism.
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